The presence of pathological swallowing in association with muscle imbalance and oral respiration must be seriously considered during orthodontic treatment. If the tongue assumes a different posture both in the resting position (not respecting the spot) and during the act of swallowing, damage to the osteodentary system may appear and negatively affect the functioning of other organs and systems.
A dysfunctional tongue associated with oral breathing can generate various malocclusion problems.
Incorrect swallowing in orthodontics can be considered the main cause of dental malocclusion, which can cause anterior open bites, unilateral and bilateral open bites, mono and bilateral cross bites, total open bites with contacts only on the last molars, anterior reverse bites, reverse bites total, third functional classes, increased over jet, increased over byte, diastema between teeth and covered bites.
Atypical swallowing associated with muscle imbalance can give rise to some forms of periodontal disease which, even if in the presence of good dental hygiene, can cause situations such as gingival recessions, bone resorption and dental spreading in some patients.
A dysfunctional tongue associated with oral breathing can generate a series of disorders, such as: otorhinolaryngoiatric problems, hypertrophy of the adenoids and tonsils, rhinitis, allergies and even the paranasal sinuses can be affected by alterations in the swallowing mechanism as the stagnation of mucus as a cause of poor nasal breathing can cause reactive sinusitis due to stagnation.
Allergic situations and respiratory diseases may also occur which prevent correct nasal ventilation and which are characterized by oral breathing; this may be due to the narrowed maxilla due to an atypical swallowing due to lack of stimulation of the tongue on the palate, which reduces both the width of the nasal cavities and the oral space to contain the tongue itself, which is forced during the act of swallowing to retroposition and push back the tonsils making them obstructive.
While the pressure changes caused by incorrect swallowing can give rise to pathologies affecting the ear such as catarrhal and purulent otitis, or cause hearing loss, tinnitus, tinnitus and dizziness and sometimes even perforations of the eardrum.
Furthermore, the imbalance of the oral and facial muscles in association with faulty swallowing can cause a muscular imbalance of ocular motility with the appearance of phorias, stabilisms, ocular fatigue which often causes headache and some forms of myopia.
Poor swallowing in association with oral breathing can cause aerophagia problems due to the compression of air in the digestive system, so children are listless, get tired easily, eat little, have a swollen stomach and emit a lot of air.
On the other hand, some patients feel when swallowing an obstruction in the throat that prevents swallowing food, with a feeling of suffocation that is called a hysterical bolus and that is hardly associated with abnormal swallowing, but which is often attributed to the patient's emotional stress resulting in administration of drugs such as calming the nervous system that cause a further slowing of the peristalsic movement.
While oral breathing can cause behavioral problems that are easily found in children with situations such as: fatigue, poor ability to concentrate and attention up to manifesting hyperactivity or on the contrary apathy, all this would occur due to lack of cerebral oxygenation and lack of stimulation of the palatine receptors.
Poor swallowing can also cause a muscular imbalance and consequent occlusal and gnathological problems (temporomandibular joint) which can cause muscular-tension headaches and cause problems in the structure of the neck and back, which will cause painful symptoms at the level of the spine with an altered attitude of posture.
Infant swallowing associated with oral breathing is characterized by: ● Dark circles ● Narrow nostrils ● Contracted cheekbones
Extract from "Physiology and Pathology of Swallowing" - Dr. Antonio Ferrante
The use of the AMCOP Bio Activator in association with specific exercises can be of great help in the treatment of the various disorders listed by improving correct swallowing with the relaxation of facial muscles and nasal breathing.